Indeed the Schmalkaldic War fulfilled the long-held political wish of Moritz of Saxony to get the position of a palatine elector. The cousin Johann Friedrich had to restrict as Duke on the areas in Thuringia. But the military victories of the Emperor were without any result. The wanted reform of the church he could not enforce, a rearrangement of the Empire failed to appear. Luther's tenets had nothing lost in effect and attractiveness
Johannes Luther continued his law studies at the University of Wittenberg, that flowered again. His brother Martin started with studying theology and Paul, the Reformer's youngest son, attended his first philosophic lectures. Fabian Kaufmann had finished his studies and was appointed at the court of the Prince of Anhalt by a recommandation of Justus Jonas, where Luther's nephew called himself Mercator, derived from the latin word for the word Kaufmann
With much effort Katharina has rebuilt the manor (farm) Wachsdorf; also Zülsdorf was not untroubled by the destruction of the war. In the meantime both farms were in such a way overtaxed, that Katherina had to complain several times about this. She was burdened too by a conflict with a neighbour in Zülsdorf and and had to go several times with Melanchthon to Leipzig because this broken out lawsuit. The financial burdens were no longer viable. Therefore Johannes had to assist often as oldest son of the mother in farming, that was very important for the subsistance of the family and for the further education of his siblings.
Melanchthon's son-in-law and rector of the University of Königsberg, Georg Sabinus, came to Wittenberg at the beginning of the year 1549. At the behest of Duke Albrecht of Prussia he served an invitation for luther's son Johannes to continue his studies in Eastern Prussia provided by a grant of the Duke. The Reformer gave to the Duke once the spiritual food, so he found it an obligation, to give to Luther's children fleshly food and to bring forward their education.
In Prussia the bishop of Samland, Georg of Polenz, established already since the year 1522 Luther's writings. In the year 1523 Duke Albrecht visited D. Martin Luther in Wittenberg and requested for his advice. At that time, Albrecht was still High-Master of the German Order, that was threatened by an increasing number of internal disintegration.
The religious state was impact by a high overtaxing, the cavalry, like the knighthood was called at that time, and by a spreading malpractice of indulgence. Luther advised him to convert the relgious state to a secular principality. Therefore in the peace of Krakow on 9 April 1525 under the agreement of King Sigismund of Poland the Duchy of Prussia was created. As Duke, Albrecht instituted the reformation as first Lutheran prince. In June 1526 he married Dorothea the daughter of King Christian II. of Denmark. Duke Albrecht has invited Luther to the wedding ceremony in Königsberg, if he is followed this invitation, is cast into doubt; such a long journey would probably have required two months.
The 'postil' of Martin Luther, his collection of sermons, was brought since March 1526 to all pastors in Prussia. The Duke let translate its for the Polish and the Lithuanian part of his country. The Albertinum, since 17. August 1544 the University of Königsberg, where later Kant was an excellant scholar, arised out of the "Kneiphöfischen" cathedral school. It was built up and developed by Duke Albrecht with high investments. Its humanistic teaching method followed essentially the principles of Melanchthon. All of the students there should take high offices. - The old religious state firmed after the introduction of the Reformation. Therefore Luther is the real spiritual father of Prussia, with that the roots were set for the following kingdom.
End of May 1549 Sabinus and Johannes Luther hit the road to Königsberg, that they reached end of June. Because in Königsberg the Plague was erupted, they could enter the city and therefore they travelled about the duchy. Some time they stayed in Laptau; Frauenburg, the city, where Kopernikus was domiciled till his death, had still a Catholic canon, why they could not stay there. Finally both remained for some time in Prussian Holland, where Wolf of Kunheim was governor. Related to him was Johannes of Creutzen, Prussian chancellor and professor of law.
Not until the winter semester 1549/50 Johannes could continue his study of law in Königsberg. Still the university was very small. In the winter semester only eight students were studying there, in the following summer semester 38 students there were. All the more the contact was closely between the professors and the students. Johannes stayed with Sabinus. He could give the merchants, which were on the way to the fair of Leipzig, the first reports of his trip to take with. Melanchthon has answered him in November 1549.
Johannes Luther had a good contact to the pastor Michael Stiefel, who was a faithful follower of the Reformer. He resided in Haffstrom at the Vistula Lagoon near Königsberg. Often Johannes Luther took a walk to pastor Stiefel, and in the winter time both hiked together on the frozen backwater.
Also the young Georg of Kunheim Johannes Luther met at the University of Königsberg. Those was barely ten years old as his father has died 1543. Duke Albrecht took care for him. He had promised to the father to take care for Georg like for his own son. Georg's mother, Margarete Truchseß of Wetzhausen, was the sister of the wife of Georg of Polenz, the first Lutheran bishop of Samland. Georg's guardians were Christoph of Creutzen, married with the daughter Dorothea of the bishop, and the brother of him Johannes of Creutzen, professor of law in Königsberg. Through this Johannes Luther came in close contact with this families in Eastern Prussia , which were all great admirers of his father, the Reformer.
Georg of Kunheim attended primarily theological lectures at Osiander. In fall 1550 the Duke decided, that Georg had to continue his studies at the University of Wittenberg, especially to attend lectures at Melanchthon. Here Georg stayed with Paul Eber and was a boarder in the Black Monastry at the reformer's widow, Katharina Luther. He make friends with the daughter of the Reformer Margareta and became acquainted with the brother of her Martin, who studied theology too. Their brother Paul now began his medical studies on the advice of his guardian, the physician Dr. Ratzeberger. Also Melanchthon considered him as suitable.
In the meantime Lucas Cranach the younger has took over the painter's shop of his 78 years old father. At the beginning 1550 his wife Barbara Brück, the sister of the saxonian chancellor Christian Brück, was died. At the end of the year Lucas Cranach the younger married Magdalene Schurff, the daughter of Luther's family doctor and niece of Melanchthon.
Katharina Luther felt sickly, and in particular she yearned highly for her distant favorite son Johannes. She turned in a letter to the Duke Albrecht of Prussia and asked him, he may allow, that Johannes continue his studies of law in Italy or France. The universities of there had at this time an outstanding reputation concerning studying of law. In previous years the Duke has supported too such kind of studies abroad, but now he meant, the universities in Germany would be sufficed, its would be become equal, and therefore a temporary studying abroad would be not very useful for Johannes. Katharina would have liked, that her son could have made experiences abroad, because the journey to Königsberg was the first longer trip and absence from Wittenberg, if one turned a blind eye to the short tours, which he had made together with his father.
When Johannes Luther went to Königsberg to continue his studies, Justus Jonas provided him with a recommendatory letter for the Duke; Melanchthon presented him a glowing testimony too, in what he praised Johannes's spirit and
eloquence, he would be versatile and perserving in physical strains, above all he has a modest manner.
The Duke replied to Katharina's letter in July 1551, in which he complained, that his good will would be not quite reciprocated in a way, like he had hoped, because Johannes had partaked in some good conflicts.